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Processing and evaluation: Referencing

Part of the Information Literacy Portal

A reference: what is it?

A reference gives any reader the possibility to check where (and in some cases when)  the information was found: in which book or journal article, dissertation, report, video, on which web page ....

You have to use a citation style such as APA (most used style at Zuyd) or Vancouver.

See the explanation for References.

Why a reference?

  • It must be clear what your own ideas are and what has been drawn from someone else. See also Plagiarism.
  • The reader must be able to check where you got the information from.
  • The use of suitable sources increases the quality of your report and thereby the reliability/credibility.

How to process a source?

  • Within the text you include a short reference to the source. This consists of: author's name, year of publication and sometimes a page number
  • Referring in the text can be done in two ways: quoting or paraphrasing.
  • Quoting is reusing an identical segment of a source
  • Paraphrasing is reusing a segment of a source by putting it in your own words. See also: Quoting, Paraphrasing.
  • At the end of your report, you include a list of all the sources that you have used: the bibliography or reference list
  • The bibliography contains at least the following fields per publication: author + year + title + publisher/origin. See also: Reference list

Bibliography/reference list

All sources you have used have to be listed : this is called the bibliography or reference list.

A bibliography is a list of books, articles, speeches, private records, diaries, interviews, laws, letters, websites, and other sources you use when researching a topic and writing a paper. The bibliography appears at the end. Your entries should be listed in alphabetical order sorted by the last name of the first author.

See also:  Quoting and  Paraphrasing

Note: Unused sources should not be listed!

Use the  Endnote software tool to make a bibliography at the end of your assignment. See the Libguide: Endnote.

A bibliography: why?

A bibliography enables the reader to see directly which sources you have used.
The reader can check what findings you have come up with and what is borrowed from another writer. See also: Plagiarism.

A bibliography also directs readers to other related publications. This goes both ways: if you are looking for information on a specific subject, it is always useful to have a look at the bibliography of a book or article.
See also: Searching

Formatting a bibliography

A bibliography can be formatted in different styles.
Most Zuyd departments use the APA style.
See: American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition.). American Psychological Association.

All information can be retrieved from their website.

A tool: EndNote

EndNote: what is it?

EndNote is a reference management software package, a tool used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays and articles. You can build a personal library containing descriptions/references of sources such as books, journal articles or web pages.
There are several ways to add a reference to a library: manually, by exporting from databases/search engines, importing, or copying from another EndNote library. Associated pdfs can be linked.

The connection between EndNote and  makes it possible to include references and the reference list while writing, according to a certain reference style. It can increase the quality of your research product.

All information can be found in the EndNote Basic LibGuide. | Disclaimer | Over Zuyd Bibliotheek