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Please note that the information on these pages is based on the APA 6th edition.
Edition 7 has now been published. We will update this LibGuide shortly.
Take a look at this pdf for the 10 most important changes in APA 7th edition
APA Style Basics - APA 6th - Referencing
There are two parts to referencing:
- In-text citations - the citations within the text of your paper and
- End-text references - the reference list at the end of your paper.
Citation within the text
The APA referencing style is an "author-date" style, so the citation in the text consists of the author(s) and year of publication. Use only the surname of the author(s) followed by a comma and the year of publication. Include page, chapter or section numbers if you need to be specific, for example if you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing:
No distinction is made between books, music scores, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this case use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation para.
Citation in reference list
The full details of the source are given in a reference list at the end of the document.
Reference list entries contain all the information that is required to follow up your source. Reference lists in APA are arranged alphabetically by author.
Referencing and APA
You can find more information about Referencing and APA in the Zuyd Information Literacy Portal
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioural sciences. It provides invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the ethics of authorship to the word choice that best reduces bias in language. Well-known for its authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, and tone that will result in strong, simple, and elegant scientific communication. The sixth edition offers new and expanded instruction on publication ethics, statistics, journal article reporting standards, electronic reference formats, and the construction of tables and figures. The sixth edition has been revised and updated to include: new ethics guidance on such topics as determining authorship and terms of collaboration, duplicate publication, plagiarism and self-plagiarism, disguising of participants, validity of instrumentation, and making data available to others for verification; new journal article reporting standards to help readers report empirical research with clarity and precision; simplified APA heading style to make it more conducive to electronic publication; updated guidelines for reducing bias in language to reflect current practices and preferences, including a new section on presenting historical language that is inappropriate by present standards; new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics and a significantly revised table of statistical abbreviations; and, new instruction on using supplemental files containing lengthy data sets and other media. This book includes significantly expanded content on the electronic presentation of data to help readers understand the purpose of each kind of display and choose the best match for communicating the results of the investigation, with new examples for a variety of data displays, including electro physiological and biological data. It offers consolidated information on all aspects of reference citations, with an expanded discussion of electronic sources emphasising the role of the digital object identifier (DOI) as a reliable way to locate information. It features expanded discussion of the publication process, including the function and process of peer review. It contains a discussion of ethical, legal, and policy requirements in publication; and guidelines on working with the publisher while the article is in press. Key to this edition of the Publication Manual is an updated and expanded Web presence. Look up additional supplemental material keyed to this book. This book lets you test your knowledge of APA Style with a free tutorial on style basics. It lets you learn about the changes in the sixth edition with a free tutorial reviewing key revisions. Sign up for an on-line course to enrich and enhance your understanding of APA Style. Read the APA Style blog and share your comments on writing and referencing. Consult frequently asked questions to sharpen your understanding of APA Style. This title lets you examine additional resources on such topics as ethics, statistics, and writing. It lets you familiarise yourself with submission standards for APA books and journals.
APA References - Examples
Free APA Citation Generator
EndNote is a free powerful tool for managing your research. The connection between EndNote and Word makes it possible to include references and the reference list while writing.
Read more in the EndNote Basic LibGuide.
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